Terms of Reference
Review and Revision of S. Sudan Research Study – The Economic, Social and Political Cost of CRSV in Africa
Duration: 10 Days
Managed by: Gender Justice Lead Pan Africa Programme
Project Background: Oxfam and partners are implementing a project entitled “Ensuring accountability for Sexual Gender Based Violence (SGBV) and increased participation of women in Africa”.
The project is expected to increase state accountability for conflict related sexual and gender based violence. It is hoped that state accountability will both make the case for redirected military expenditure as well facilitate access to justice for survivors of sexual and gender based violence where violations have occurred.
Managed by the Oxfam Pan Africa Programme, the project seeks to accelerate the realization of women’s rights by amplifying African women’s voices, promoting their meaningful participation in key decision making spaces by targeting attitudes, practices as well as policies that prevent the inclusion of women in post conflict decision making spaces.
The project has three result areas namely:
1. Policy and legal decisions on responses to sexual and gender based violence (before during and after conflict) are informed by empirical evidence on the economic, social and political cost of conflict sexual and gender based violence to the state in the three target countries.
2. Survivors of conflict related sexual and gender based violence are supported to access justice through increased use of international, regional and national human rights instruments and policies on prevention and response to CRSV at continental, regional and national levels.
3. Increased and meaningful participation of women and their organizations in continental, regional and national decision making platforms on prevention, management, response and resolution before, during and after conflict.
The project focus countries are Egypt, Nigeria and South Sudan with intention to carry out interventions at the continental level informed by the country level work and experiences.
The preliminary draft South Sudan Report has been generated and requires review and revision to reflect the current environment and contextual changes that have taken place in South Sudan over the last year.
Oxfam and partners intend to use the evidence generated from the research to advocate for effective policy, legal and programmatic responses to sexual and gender based violence at national and continental levels.
The research component of this project has the potential to inform on-going post conflict reconstruction and development initiatives within these countries and across the continent if leveraged successfully.
The research contributes to result area 1 of the Project i.e. Policy and legal decisions on sexual and gender based violence (before during and after conflict) are informed by empirical evidence on the economic, social and political cost of conflict for women.
CRSV is used as a weapon or tactic during conflict. Reports from the Oxfam country offices indicate that women in the target countries have experienced CRSV in the conflicts these countries are facing.
Post conflict reconstruction is for the most part devoid of gender considerations making it difficult for women to access justice for CRSV.
Despite the plethora of international instruments on women peace and security which have been ratified by a majority of African states at the African Union (AU) and United Nations (UN) the domestication and implementation of the standards espoused in these instruments has at best been slow.
There is a dearth of evidence on the social, economic and political cost of conflict related CRSV. Yet decisions are made on conflict resolution and peace processes that affect both men and women with little or no consideration of the underlying gender dynamics.
Consider since conflict is a barrier to economic growth, necessarily for the cost of conflict resolution and reconstruction also impedes economic growth, it follows that the cost of post conflict reconstruction will also affect the economic growth in that phase.
The research seeks to establish the broad cost of CRSV in conflict to inform post conflict reconstruction as well as a tool for effective policy reform while advocating for change, as far the potential benefits of redirected military spending, as well as ensuring that women who face CRSV during conflict are able to access justice.
All countries make trade-offs between social spending and military spending. In 2013, Africa had the largest relative rise in military spending in any region, by 8.3 per cent, to reach $44.9 billion. Incessant conflicts in Africa have resulted in commitments of large portions of African governments‟ expenditures to the defence sector.
The excessive and ever increasing African defence budgets have had adverse effects on essential social services.
Many countries in Africa spend twice as much on the military as they spend on social services. Article 10 ( 3) of the Protocol on the Rights of Women in Africa requires that, “States Parties shall take the necessary measures to reduce military expenditure significantly in favour of spending on social development in general, and the promotion of women in particular.”
Thus the research offers propositional scenarios the impact of redirected investments from the military/defence budgets can have on social development and women’s rights in general and the reduction of CRSV specifically.
1. Women have the right to a peaceful existence and the right to participate in the promotion and maintenance of peace.
2. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure the increased participation of women:
States Parties shall take the necessary measures to reduce military expenditure significantly in favour of spending on social development in general, and the promotion of women in particular.
What the Research seeks to Explore
It is intended that the research be anchored on Article 10 of the Protocol on the Rights of Women in Africa exploring the following;
1. The economic, social and political cost of CRSV to South Sudan
2. Providing an intersectional analysis on the level of military expenditure as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product, but as compared to spending on social services, access to justice or spending on government gender programming in the project countries and whether this contributes or undermines safety, security and social development for citizens particularly women.
3. Contrasting levels of military expenditure against the economic, social and political cost of conflict and impact of CRSV and;
4. Offering propositional scenarios the impact of redirected investments from the military and related security apparatus can have on social development and women’s rights in general and the reduction of sexual and gender based violence specifically.
Research Review Methods
This is a qualitative study that will rely primarily on the completed draft research, qualitative research methods, which include but are not limited to literature review, key informant interviews, focus group discussions and case study collection.
Quantitative data will be buttressed with qualitative data. The Oxfam South Sudan country office will be a key contact for the researcher and will provide technical guidance and support.
The Researcher: We are looking for a researcher with sound contextual knowledge and experience working on conflict issues in South Sudan.
Any field work should ideally engage both the beneficiaries of project result areas 2 and 3 interventions as well as targets for advocacy i.e. informants who are duty bearers e.g. Parliamentary Committees, judicial officers; identify also informants among e.g. health service providers; identify also informants from the communities where the proposed beneficiaries are from.
Deliverables and Reporting Deadlines
It is expected that the consultants will develop the following;
– A thoroughly reviewed and revised South Sudan final report: The final report should include an executive summary that summarizes the key findings and recommendations including best practices identified by the research.
1. Duration of the consultancy: The time frame for this consultancy will be 10 working days.
2. Management: The consultant will report directly to the Gender Justice Lead who will ensure that the consultancy is carried out as per contract.
3. Oxfam ’s Responsibilities
Oxfam GB will pay the consultant upon delivery of a satisfactory meeting report.
The work has to be completed within the set time frame. Oxfam GB will make a one tranche payment to the consultant upon successful completion of the tasks and submission of a satisfactory document.
5. Required Qualifications
(i) Post graduate degree in development studies/social studies with focus on gender
(ii) At least 7 years work experience in the field of gender in the Africa region, experience working in South Sudan preferred
(iii) Good knowledge and understanding of the current discourse and discussions around women, peace and security issues on the African continent
(iv) Excellent analytical and research skills
(v) Excellent writing skills in English
Interested applicants are requested to submit the following:
1. Cover letter and CV
2. Proposed fee
3. Earliest available date to commence
Deadline for submission: Expressions of interest should be submitted by 20th December 2016
Submissions to: Send submissions to firstname.lastname@example.org